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  • List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Major Powers and International Organizations; An Assessment of Developments in the Post-Cold War Era
        سید محمدکاظم  سجادپور
        International organizations, as an outcome of actions and reactions in international politics, law and community since their very inception in the Twentieth Century, have always been significantly susceptible to the impact of the relations among major powers. The critic More
        International organizations, as an outcome of actions and reactions in international politics, law and community since their very inception in the Twentieth Century, have always been significantly susceptible to the impact of the relations among major powers. The critical impact of these powers on the dynamism and efficiency of international organizations has not been in doubt. This has also been the case during the post-Cold War era. This paper undertakes to assess the impact of the relations among major powers on international organizations in the period following the end of the Cold War? To answer this question, a conceptual framework for understanding developments in international organizations has been offered first. Then, changes in relations among major powers since the end of the Cold War have been discussed. And finally, the paper has turned to the assessment of the qualitative and quantitative developments in international organizations from the vantage point of relations among the major powers. As argued in the paper, changes in the quality of relations among the major powers in the post-Cold War era have ushered both horizontal and vertical development in international organizations, especially when compared to previous eras, and have as a consequence led them to play a more important role in international relations. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - International Responsibility of OPCW to Foster Peaceful Cooperation
        شاهرخ شاکریان
        The Chemical Weapons Convention, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1992, constitutes the most important international legal instrument on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. The present pa More
        The Chemical Weapons Convention, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1992, constitutes the most important international legal instrument on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. The present paper intends to explore the commitment of the Convention to fostering peaceful chemical cooperation as envisioned in Articles 8 and 11, and also to assess the international responsibility of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Therefore, the main question of this paper is: “Under what conditions and according to what principles can this Organization be held responsible with regard to its commitment to fostering peaceful international cooperation in the field of chemical activities?” As discussed in this paper, according to the provisions of Article 11 of the Convention, the Organization is under definitive obligations to bolster international cooperation. The paper also shows that the measures taken by the Australia Group, whose members are also Member States of the OPCW, in expanding prohibitions and restrictions of the Convention are incompatible with the provisions of the Convention and, therefore, its members are in violation of the Convention. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The Role of International Organizations in the Realization of the Right to Food
        Farhad Talaie علی رزمخواه
        The right to food, a basic right of every person, is the right to be free from hunger and have sustained access to food with acceptable quantity and quality which would meet their food and cultural needs. Although States are the main parties responsible for the realiz More
        The right to food, a basic right of every person, is the right to be free from hunger and have sustained access to food with acceptable quantity and quality which would meet their food and cultural needs. Although States are the main parties responsible for the realization of human rights, both at domestic and international levels, increased activities of international organizations on an international scale, especially in the field of human rights, have raised questions as to the role of these organizations in realizing the human right to food and how they discharge that role. As argued in this paper, international organizations play an effective and unique role in the realization of the right to food at the international level. It is also noted that such international bodies address different aspects of the various issues related to the right to food. The paper concludes that the main goal of such activities is to realize the human right to food, especially for the poor people suffering the worst from unfavorable food security in the world. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Climate Change and Environmental Security in Southeast Asia; Exploring ASEAN Activities
        The main goal of this paper is to discuss measures taken by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) with regard to climate change. Therefore, a descriptive-analytical method has been used to answer the main question of the paper: What effective practical step More
        The main goal of this paper is to discuss measures taken by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) with regard to climate change. Therefore, a descriptive-analytical method has been used to answer the main question of the paper: What effective practical steps has ASEAN taken with regard to the climate change? To answer this question, the paper has been prepared in five sections. The first section reviews the concept of security in international relations and a broader definition of this concept has been provided. In the second section, environmental security has been discussed as one of the main aspects of security in international relations. In the third section, the focus is on the climate change as a threat to environmental security. The fourth chapter discusses risks of climate change in Southeast Asia. The fifth section reviews measures taken by ASEAN with regard to climate change by dividing those measures in two broad categories of normative policymaking as well as institutional and organizational development. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Developmental Changes of Selected Countries in Iran's 20-Year Perspective Plan Region and Regional Economic Convergence
        Mirabdollah Hosseini بهرام امیراحمدیان
        Iran’s 20-Year Vision, a major document and roadmap for the long-term overall development of the country, was adopted a few years ago. The Vision contains, among others, comparisons with the performance of a select group of countries in the region. As discussed in the p More
        Iran’s 20-Year Vision, a major document and roadmap for the long-term overall development of the country, was adopted a few years ago. The Vision contains, among others, comparisons with the performance of a select group of countries in the region. As discussed in the present paper, a number of regional countries have achieved in recent years rapid developmental changes in various fields of infrastructure, real economy, environment, and foreign economic relations, especially with regard to foreign investment attraction. These developments have faced most regional countries, especially Iran, with challenges and opportunities. The authors argue in the paper that if Iran fails to make due progress in these fields, it will not only fail to achieve the objectives of the 20-Year Vision, but it will also risk widening of the historical developmental gap which exists between regional and international players. The present paper aims to expound developmental changes in a select group of countries in the region and also compare Iran’s performance with those countries in terms of opportunities, threats and challenges. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Dimensions, Consequences, and Challenges of Turkey’s EU Membership
        بهروز  مختاری keyhan bazegar
        This paper discusses the challenges Turkey has faced in its bid for accession to the European Union (EU) membership. As argued here, two independent variables; namely, identity and economic incongruity, have confronted Turkey’s endeavor with certain serious challenges More
        This paper discusses the challenges Turkey has faced in its bid for accession to the European Union (EU) membership. As argued here, two independent variables; namely, identity and economic incongruity, have confronted Turkey’s endeavor with certain serious challenges. To test this hypothesis, the authors explain the EU’s approach to the question of membership through theories of constructivism and economic liberalism. As discussed in the paper, the major challenges faced by Turkey in this process stem from the peculiar characteristics of power and political structure in the country, including the Islamic heritage and identity, incomplete democratization as embodied in a semi-democratic political structure, and also the developing nature of the economy. The paper concludes that as long as these characteristics persist, Turkey will have a hard row to hoe for the accession to the European Union. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Conflict of Interests in International Arbitration with Emphasis on IBA Guidelines
        مهدی  فلاح همایون  مافی
        Lack of adequate transparency and uniformity in application of the existing criteria of international arbitration, and existence of conflicting interests in international arbitration, have led the International Bar Association (IBA) to launch a range of practical and su More
        Lack of adequate transparency and uniformity in application of the existing criteria of international arbitration, and existence of conflicting interests in international arbitration, have led the International Bar Association (IBA) to launch a range of practical and substantive recommendations known as “IBA Guidelines on Conflicts of Interest in International Arbitration.” The present paper tries to look into the performance and achievements of the IBA Guidelines, especially when compared to other bodies of arbitration rules and regulations? The paper argues that although the Guidelines are not in tune with other rules of arbitration with respect to certain issues such as imposing restrictions on subjective standard of disclosure, the impact of non-disclosure, and the effect of the investigations on the arbiter’s decision, they can still blaze a new trail which could lead to a higher level of coordination among various procedures of international arbitration. Manuscript profile