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  • List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Economic Diplomacy and Islamic Republic of Iran’s Accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO)
        Sayed Mohammad Mousavi dehmourdi Vahid Bozorgi
        The Islamic Republic of Iran’s Accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) is bound to have significant benefits for domestic economy and foreign trade. The decision to join in 1996 and ensuing efforts since then were hindered by internal challenges and internatio More
        The Islamic Republic of Iran’s Accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) is bound to have significant benefits for domestic economy and foreign trade. The decision to join in 1996 and ensuing efforts since then were hindered by internal challenges and international oppositions, notably by the Untied States. Internally, some are against the accession because they believe it is detrimental to economic and trade interest of the country in, at least, short-term. Another obstacle is lack of skilled and experienced diplomats with expertise in economic affairs. Despite trainings and educations offered by responsible entities, Iran still lacks a seasoned diplomatic corps to engage in high-level international negotiations. This article investigates Islamic Republic of Iran’s endeavours in economic diplomacy to facilitate its accession to the WTO. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - International Institutions; Mathematica Modeling of Change from G5 to G20
        Ali Akbar Kiani
        International Institutions, though one of key global actors and topics of International Studies, are rarely studied by focusing on the internal processes of change. A justification for lack of research could be the challenges in quantifying internal changes and processe More
        International Institutions, though one of key global actors and topics of International Studies, are rarely studied by focusing on the internal processes of change. A justification for lack of research could be the challenges in quantifying internal changes and processes. Hence, the proliferation of qualitative takes relying on personal analysis. Given the importance of cooperation groups in global governance, this article asks what is the degree of change in the process of expansion of G5 into G20? Utilising quantitative and mathematical methods, the study offers an equation based on data provided by the World Back. The equation proves a model to analyse track-records, which seemingly suggests highest performance by G7 and lowest for G8. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: Challenges and Obstacles
        Mohammad Reza Majidi Yasser Nooralivand
        By investigating the security-political divide within the European Union despite the economic integration, the article suggests structural, internal and external challenges are preventing the EU to echo one voice in international level. The most important challenge in a More
        By investigating the security-political divide within the European Union despite the economic integration, the article suggests structural, internal and external challenges are preventing the EU to echo one voice in international level. The most important challenge in achieving the Common Foreign and Security Policy is Member States’ insistence on national structures such as national sovereignty and nation interests. In maintaining national structures on supra-national level, European Union is suspended between two different structure: confederate and federal. The indeterminate and fluid structure manifests itself in process of decision-making across different policy-making arenas. Achieving EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy is prevented by contradiction between the national approach (encompassing national sovereignty and national sovereignty) and the supra-national approach (limiting national sovereignty and compromising national interest for sake of common interest).This article tries to analyze the issue that why EU notwithstanding in the field political and security convergence in the international arena? Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Cause of the North-South Divide in European Union
        Roxana Niknami
        The North-South divide in Europe is one of the most pressing challenges facing members of the European Union, influencing the process of integration within the Union. The North-South divide manifest the classic European divides such as East and West, old and young, Cont More
        The North-South divide in Europe is one of the most pressing challenges facing members of the European Union, influencing the process of integration within the Union. The North-South divide manifest the classic European divides such as East and West, old and young, Continent-oriented or Atlantic-oriented, and not developed-less developed. How did this divide emerge? What are the extent of it? Within the framework of governance theory, the article assesses the divide at three levels: first, structural deficiency amongst the south, political and economic corruption, gap in governance, unequal GDP and cultural-religious differences manifests themselves at national level. At regional level, the differences between France and Germany, the Euro crisis and ensuing austerity measures have affected the North-South divide. Internationally, globalisation and global crisis (es) deepened the divide. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Accession of Turkey to the European Union: The Changing Policy Towards Kurds
        Hossein Mofidi Ahmadi Ali Asghar Kazemi keyhan bazegar
        This paper aims to investigate the change in Turkey's approach towards the Kurds in the process of its accession to the European Union accession process. Europeanisation of Turkey is one of the most important factors in normalisation of the Kurdish issue by removing it More
        This paper aims to investigate the change in Turkey's approach towards the Kurds in the process of its accession to the European Union accession process. Europeanisation of Turkey is one of the most important factors in normalisation of the Kurdish issue by removing it from the security agenda and re-defining Turkish citizenship. It provided new opportunity for groups who are seeking peaceful solutions to the Kurdish conflict, leading to internalisation of Human Rights values and multi-culturalism. To test this hypothesis, we rely on literatures on Europeanisation to investigate EU’s policy on Kurds in the Republic of Turkey and assess the influence of Turkey’s accession process on normalisation of the Kurdish issue given EU’s compulsory, emancipatory, and de-securitisation processes. Normalisation of the Kurdish issue coupled with reduced role of the EU in past few years also suggest possibility of harsh encounter against Kurdish separatists. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - The Role of Regional Organizations in Reducing Regional Challenges; The Case of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
        hojat mahkooee hassan bavir
        After World War II, particularly since 1960s, international cooperation gained prominence within the framework of regional organizations by elevating regional cooperation. Expansion of cooperation through regional organizations are deemed as an approach to exit from int More
        After World War II, particularly since 1960s, international cooperation gained prominence within the framework of regional organizations by elevating regional cooperation. Expansion of cooperation through regional organizations are deemed as an approach to exit from international crisis, and to multiply power in facing new issues of today’s world. Regionalisation leads to development of economic cooperation, political and security harmonisation. It can reinforce regional peace and security by providing peaceful solutions for existing regional conflicts or potential ones. The Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) replaced the Regional Development Cooperation Organisation with aims of improving conditions for sustainable developments of members, expansion of regional and international trade, facilitating gradual integration with global economy, increased integration amongst public sector of member states and expanding tourism. This article highlights ECO’s role in reducing regional challenges and further integration between member states. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        7 - The African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights and Individual Petition Procedure
        Darioush  Ashrafi Amirhossein  Nourbakhsh Meysam  Bagheri Moghadam Ghahremanloo
        The lack of centralised enforcement power distinguishes international law, as a legal order, with national, domestic or even inter-organisational legal systems. The lack of enforcement is evident as a major flaw in international protection of Human Rights. A huge gap ex More
        The lack of centralised enforcement power distinguishes international law, as a legal order, with national, domestic or even inter-organisational legal systems. The lack of enforcement is evident as a major flaw in international protection of Human Rights. A huge gap exists between the the implemented Human Rights norms and those accepted to be enforceable by the international community. In a world marked with myriad of Human Rights abuses, investigating abuses and ensuing prosecution and punishment of violators of Human Rights is now a global concern, especially in Africa where range of civil wars and treatments contrary to Human Rights are witnessed. The individual right to petition and complaint is one of the guarantors in protection of human rights. This article assesses this right at the African Court on Human and People’s Rights based on its constitution, mandate and jurisdiction outlined in its founding document. Manuscript profile