Evolution in the Pressure Tools of EU’s Human Rights: A case Study of the Generalized System of PreferencesResearch Areas : Politics
Keywords: EU, Human RightsGeneralized System of Preferences (GSP)pressure toolsConsentConsent,
fundamental social values, but also is considered as a reference point for codes, ethics and standards of conduct expected in various international trade and businesses. The EU's behaviors as one of the main political-economic actors of capitalism are fundamental to respect for human rights. Members of the Union have a long history of using political, military or economic and cultural tools against countries to persuade them to respect for human rights. The main issue of the present study is to examine the evolution of the pressure tools of EU’s human rights and its reflection on the mechanism of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). The key question is what evolution has happened to the pressure tools of EU’s human rights? The research hypothesis is that as the EU's human rights pressures take on an economic-political nature, along with the transformations in the world capitalist system. This bloc will try to persuade countries to adhere to global human rights by force and consent. In this vein, the EU uses the mechanism of the GSP as a soft and intelligent consent tool to put pressure on other countries in order to adopt the guidelines of the global human rights system.
Baek, Buhm Suk (2008). Economic Sanctions Against Human Rights Violations. Cornell Law School Inter-University Graduate Student Conference Papers, Paper 11. http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/ lps_ clacp/11.
Blenkinsop, Philip (February 11, 2019). EU begins process to hit Cambodia with trade sanctions. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-cambodia-eu/eu-begins-process-to-hit-cambodia-with-trade-sanctions-idUSKCN1Q015D
Blockmans, Steven., Ehteshami, Anoushiravan., & Bahgat, Gawdat (2016). EU-Iran Relations after the Nuclear Deal. https://www.ceps.eu/system/ files/ CEPS%20ebook%20EU-Iran.pdf.
Chau, Thompson (08 APR 2019). EU says trade privileges depend on Annan report. https:// www. mmtimes. com/ news/ eu- says- trade- privileges- depend- annan-report.html
Cortright, David., & Lopez, George A (1995). Economic Sanctions: Panacea or Peacebuilding in a Post-Cold War World?. Westview Press.
Daily News (29 June 2016). SRI LANKA FORMALLY APPLIES FOR GSP+”,http://dailynews.lk/2016/06/29/local/86027
Development Solutions Europe Ltd (July 2018). Mid-Term Evaluation of the EU's Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) - Final Report”, prepared for the European Commission, Brussels.
European Commission (11 December 2002). EU-Iran: launch of negotiations on new agreements with Iran", https://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-02-1862_en.htm
European Commission (2018), "Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, Report on the Generalised Scheme of Preferences covering the period 2016-2017", COM(2018) 36 final, 19 January 2018.
European Commission (2017). Non-financial reporting", https://ec.europa.eu/ info/ business- economy- euro/ company- reporting- and- auditing/ company- reporting/non-financial-reporting_en
European Commission (31 October 2018). Myanmar: EU mission assesses human rights and labour rights situation”, http://trade.ec.europa.eu/ doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1936
European Commission (17 May 2017). EU grants Sri Lanka improved access to its market as incentive for reform”, http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/ press/ index.cfm?id=1663
European Parliamentary Research Service (December 2018). The Generalised Scheme of Preferences Regulation (No 978/2012) European Implementation Assessment. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/' target='blank'>http://www.europarl.europa.eu/ RegData/ etudes/STUD/2018/627134/EPRS_STU(2018)627134_EN.pdf
Finnemore, M., & Sikkink, K (1998). International norm dynamics and political change. International Organization, 52(4), 887–917.
Nakanishi Y (2018). Mechanisms to Protect Human Rights in the EU’s External Relations. In: Nakanishi Y. (eds) Contemporary Issues in Human Rights Law, Springer, Singapore.
International Trade Union Confederation (2018). 2018 ITUC GLOBAL RIGHTS INDEX The World’s Worst Countries for Workers. https:// www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/ituc-global-rights-index-2018-en-final-2.pdf
Official Journal of the European Union (2015). Generalized System of Preferences: Handbook on the Scheme of the European Union. https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/itcdtsbmisc25rev4_en.pdf
Regulation (EU) No 978/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council (25 October 2012). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/ EN/ TXT/ PDF/?uri= CELEX:02012R0978-20160127&from=EN
Russell, Martin (2019). 'Everything but Arms': The case of Cambodia. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/' target='blank'>http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/ATAG/2019/637931/EPRS_ATA(2019)637931_EN.pdf
Theguardian (2018/September/18). Google's prototype Chinese search engine links searches to phone numbers. https:// www. theguardian. com/ technology/ 2018/sep/18/google-china-dragonfly-search-engine
The Nation (January 10, 2019). Myanmar asks EU not to revoke GSP. http://www.nationmultimedia.com/detail/Economy/30361934
Velluti, Samantha (2016). The Promotion and Integration of Human Rights in EU External Trade Relations. Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, 32(83), pp.41–68.
Zamfir, Ionel (2017). Human rights in EU trade policy: Unilateral measures. European Parliamentary Research Service, http://www.europarl. europa.eu/ RegData/ etudes/ BRIE/ 2017/ 595878/ EPRS_ BRI(2017) 595878_ EN.pdf.