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      1 - Neighborhood Policy and Multilateral Geoeconomic Order Making; The Islamic Republic of Iran and the Eurasian Economic Union
      Amir  Abbasi Khoshkar
      Iss. 15 , Vol. 5 , Summer 2022
      Geoeconomic Order Making as one of the main foundations of strategic Order Making in West Asia as well as playing the role of economic stabilization in the periphery areas have become some of the main directions of regional foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran More
      Geoeconomic Order Making as one of the main foundations of strategic Order Making in West Asia as well as playing the role of economic stabilization in the periphery areas have become some of the main directions of regional foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Neighborhood policy based on economic diplomacy in the geo-economic cluster of Central Asia and the Caucasus has provided a favorable business environment in the form of membership in the Eurasian Economic Union. Selling of consumer goods and services to the region in order to boost exports and enhance the value of national currency are among the main goals of joining the union. The question of the present study is that “what are the opportunities and challenges of advancing Iran's membership in the Eurasian Economic Union regarding geoeconomic participation in Central Asia and the Caucasus? In response to the above question, it is hypothesized that the expanding export markets and strengthen the convergence of geoenergy with union members are the most important opportunities and incompatibility of the economies of the member states along with their competition in energy exports are among the challenges facing the Islamic Republic of Iran in the markets of Eurasian Economic union. The research method in this article is descriptive-explanatory. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Opportunities and Threats of Iran’s Membership in the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (Legal, Political, Defensive and Security)
      Afifeh  Abedi
      Iss. 15 , Vol. 5 , Summer 2022
      Due to the proliferation of technologies underlying weapons of mass destruction and the non-membership of Iran's regional rival, Israel, in the organization, and despite the indicators for the success of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Organization for the More
      Due to the proliferation of technologies underlying weapons of mass destruction and the non-membership of Iran's regional rival, Israel, in the organization, and despite the indicators for the success of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), there are always concerns about the consequences of Iran’s membership in the OPCW, meaning that by joining the organization, Iran will not only lose its weapons-based deterrence, but also is exposed to intelligence threats by providing the organization with confidential onformation. The main question of the present study is what legal-political, defense and security opportunities Iran will enjoy and what threats it will face by joining the CWC and the OPCW. The purpose of this research is to accurately explain the opportunities and threats in order to benefit more from them to secure Iran's interests. The findings show that the implicit threats of membership in the CWC and the OPCW are also present in the case of non-membership. However, the direct and implicit opportunities for Iran's membership in the convention and the organization are unavoidable. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - NATO's Political and Military Strategy for 2030 and Global Implications
      رحیم بایزیدی Asgar Safari
      Iss. 15 , Vol. 5 , Summer 2022
      The dynamic nature of the international order and distribution of power has transformed the international environment into an arena of rapid political, military, and security developments. The establishment of NATO was also the result of one of these developments, inclu More
      The dynamic nature of the international order and distribution of power has transformed the international environment into an arena of rapid political, military, and security developments. The establishment of NATO was also the result of one of these developments, including rapid expansion of Soviet's military and geopolitical power. The organization has faced many challenges throughout its life, one of the most important of which was the collapse of the Soviet Union and the disappearance of its founding philosophy. But in the post-Cold War era of international relations, NATO not only sustained its life by relying on its strategic concepts, using Russia's in its domestic power transition, as well as highlighting emerging threats such as terrorism, but also increased its members from 16 countries -before the collapse of the Soviet Union- to 30 countries in 2020. Despite NATO's high level of adaptation to international developments, the global distribution of power is changing rapidly, posing fundamental challenges to the organization. The present study seeks to address three key issues, including the challenges and threats facing NATO in assessing the international political and security environment, NATO's strategy for dealing with these threats, and finally its consequences. Using a descriptive-analytical method, while extracting the system of threats facing NATO, this article deals with some of the most important pillars of NATO's strategy for implementation until 2030. Finally, the global implications of NATO's new strategy are analyzed as well. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Assessing the Role of South and Southeast Asian Regional Organizations in Confronting Maritime Terrorism: Case Study of SAARC, BIMSTEC & ASEAN
      Farhad Talaie Maral Javidbakht
      Iss. 15 , Vol. 5 , Summer 2022
      Waters of the South and Southeast Asia have long been some of the most important hotspots for various sea-based organized crimes. As a result of the continuously rising threat of terrorism and its spread all around the world, along with the access of terrorist groups to More
      Waters of the South and Southeast Asia have long been some of the most important hotspots for various sea-based organized crimes. As a result of the continuously rising threat of terrorism and its spread all around the world, along with the access of terrorist groups to more efficient and modern military equipments, the danger of terrorism has become more imminent and widespread, taking many forms and finding its way to the seas. Maritime terrorism, especially within regions where other maritime crimes are prevalent, is considered, because of the probable links between the offenders, as one of the most serious threats against peace and security at seas. Considering the organized nature of these crimes, effective suppression of them is only possible through collective and cooprative initiatives. Thus, regional organizations have an undeniably important role in combating maritime terrorism. This article, using the descriptive-analytical method, aims to assess the performance and function of a selected number of regional organizations active within South and Southeast Asia and to examine their achievements and shortcomings, as well as their challenges, in combating maritime terrorism. This article concludes that the activities of these organizations have been essential but insufficient, and the most important challenge ahead is lack of collective strategies at the regional level. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Promoting Innovation through Standardization; Case Study of the Low Sulfur Fuel Law Published by the International Maritime Organization
      مریم محمدی Mohammad  Naghizadeh Vali  Bazarchi
      Iss. 15 , Vol. 5 , Summer 2022
      The impact of rules and standards to stimulate innovation in organizations has been the subject of various articles and research since the early 1990s. Identifying the types of standards and their impact mechanism on innovation through public policies has been addressed More
      The impact of rules and standards to stimulate innovation in organizations has been the subject of various articles and research since the early 1990s. Identifying the types of standards and their impact mechanism on innovation through public policies has been addressed in this study. In this line, by using library studies, at first, innovation and innovation policy are defined and then, the relationship between types of standards with innovation and the impact of regulation with various types of standards are examined. In the case study of "the standard of using low sulfur fuel has become mandatory from the beginning of 2020 in the shipping industry"; the structure of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the steps of converting a proposal into a standard in this organization are described. Finally, by applying the qualitative method and interviewing experts, the various solutions offered by countries and large companies in various industries to comply with this standard were analyzed. Solutions such as the use of marine diesel and low-sulfur fuels, the use of low-sulfur fuel mixtures, the installation of Scrubber of gas emission units in ships, the use of natural gas or the use of other marine fuels such as methanol and Biomass fuel was placed in the hands of research and development units in various refining, chemical, nano and polymer industries. These solutions require a variety of innovations in product and process technologies at different levels. This case study shows that a global standardization is effective in a variety of innovation methods and can shape the future development of countries and companies. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Analysis of the Relationship between Sports Diplomacy and International Prestige of Countries; A case Study of Qatar Hosting the 2022 FIFA World Cup
      Hossein  Polvandeh Farzad  Rostami
      Iss. 15 , Vol. 5 , Summer 2022
      Modern sport has been dramatically internationalized and the strategic, conscious and purposeful use of sport by countries to create interaction, information and positive indexing and increase international credibility to increase activism and pursue foreign policy goal More
      Modern sport has been dramatically internationalized and the strategic, conscious and purposeful use of sport by countries to create interaction, information and positive indexing and increase international credibility to increase activism and pursue foreign policy goals can be attributed to related on sports diplomacy. Sport has a positive role as one of the tools in diplomacy and politics. Sports diplomacy has become a tool for governments to use to improve their positions and credibility. Therefore, it is important to address the issue that in addition to military or political power, there are other and less costly ways in which countries can achieve their goals. Qatar is one of these countries that, despite its special geographical location, is using this type of diplomacy to achieve its regional and international goals. In this regard, the main question of the forthcoming article was how sports diplomacy affects Qatar's international prestige. Using descriptive analytical method, it is hypothesized that Qatar has been able to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup through sports diplomacy, with four components: becoming an important regional player, an important opportunity for public diplomacy and power. Soft, participation in peace and security and attracting public opinion, play a serious role for itself and ultimately increase its international prestige and prestige. Manuscript profile
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Position of International Organizations in Foreign Policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran
      حسین  کریمی‌فرد
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 1 , Winter 2014
      The position of international organizations in the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran has differed according to the identity system adopted by the Iranian officials in various periods of time and their viewpoints about the nature and functions of internation More
      The position of international organizations in the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran has differed according to the identity system adopted by the Iranian officials in various periods of time and their viewpoints about the nature and functions of international organizations and institutions. Since 1979 up to the present time, the experience has proven that when Iran has had positive interaction with international organizations, it has been in a better position to guarantee its security and national interests, and cooperation with international organizations in different fields has provided Iran's political, economic and cultural diplomacy with opportunities. On the other hand, a confrontational approach to international organizations has created various challenges and problems in various fields for the country and has damaged the international prestige of the Iranian government. This study reviews position of international organizations in the foreign policy of Iran from 1979 to 2003. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Necessity and Possibility of Judicial Supervision over Security Council’s Performance in UN Legal System
      حسین  شریفی طرازکوهی ساسان  مدرس سبزواری
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 1 , Winter 2014
      The issue of judicial supervision over the Security Council has two different, but interrelated aspects. First of all, the “necessity” of such supervision should be discussed. The present article assumes that the Security Council should be committed to the principles of More
      The issue of judicial supervision over the Security Council has two different, but interrelated aspects. First of all, the “necessity” of such supervision should be discussed. The present article assumes that the Security Council should be committed to the principles of international law, the goals of the United Nations, sovereign rights of member states, fundamental human rights guarantees, as well as the basic structure for the division of powers among various organs of the UN. Then it studies the Security Council’s procedure to show that this institution has been frequently found in violation of the aforesaid legal bounds. Security Council’s inattention to the limits of its powers can cast doubts on credibility of the entire UN system. It has been also shown that the “necessity” of judicial supervision can be proven on the basis of the requirements of the “rule of law.” Another aspect of this issue is the “possibility” of judicial supervision in view of the current state of international law. The present paper has shown that although the Charter of the United Nations has remained silent on this issue, it can be confirmed if final goals of this document are taken as basis for its interpretation. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Intervention by Invitation in Domestic Unrest from Viewpoint of International Law with Emphasis on Bahrain Case
      فریده شایگان
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 1 , Winter 2014
      Intervention by invitation has been always associated with the political objectives which seek to meet the interests of the interventionist state. International community has frequently witnessed such intervention not only during the Cold War era, but even after its ter More
      Intervention by invitation has been always associated with the political objectives which seek to meet the interests of the interventionist state. International community has frequently witnessed such intervention not only during the Cold War era, but even after its termination. Although there is no specific rule on this kind of intervention in international law, certain criteria for the assessment of the legitimacy of this intervention can be found in international law. Intervention of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in Bahrain was accompanied with passive reaction and silence of the Security Council. This paper first studies the criterion that can be used to assess legitimacy of intervention by invitation and then studies the legitimacy of intervention in Bahrain both on the basis of the aforesaid criteria and in accordance with the principle of responsibility to protect. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Mechanisms and Function of Transitional Justice: An Important Development in International Law
      مهدی  ذاکریان سيد‌رضي  عمادي
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 1 , Spring 2013
      The concept of justice has been always among the most important concepts in domestic and international systems and great efforts have been made to administer it in both areas, especially after the World War II. Nonetheless, in most cases, justice has not been administer More
      The concept of justice has been always among the most important concepts in domestic and international systems and great efforts have been made to administer it in both areas, especially after the World War II. Nonetheless, in most cases, justice has not been administered to leaders, especially in the Third World countries. The leaders and statesmen in these countries have never been held accountable for their inhuman acts which violate human rights as a result of their special position and by taking undue advantage of the concept of immunity. Since 2002, the Statute of the International Criminal Court has become binding for its Member States and this has been a major development in the administration of justice, especially with regard to political leaders with immunity and has paved the way for discussing the concept of transitional justice. The present article aims to expound the concept of transitional justice, its conditions, goals and mechanisms, as well as the impact of its enforcement on the restoration of peace and stability in transitional societies. The main argument of the article is that enforcement of transitional justice in transitional societies, especially by taking advantage of a combination of domestic and international courts, including the International Criminal Court, can pave the way for the restoration of calm and stability to transitional societies while sending a message to other totalitarian leaders who violate human rights. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Promoting Innovation through Standardization; Case Study of the Low Sulfur Fuel Law Published by the International Maritime Organization
        Mohammad  Naghizadeh Vali  Bazarchi
      Iss. 15 , Vol. 5 , Summer 2022
      The impact of rules and standards to stimulate innovation in organizations has been the subject of various articles and research since the early 1990s. Identifying the types of standards and their impact mechanism on innovation through public policies has been addressed More
      The impact of rules and standards to stimulate innovation in organizations has been the subject of various articles and research since the early 1990s. Identifying the types of standards and their impact mechanism on innovation through public policies has been addressed in this study. In this line, by using library studies, at first, innovation and innovation policy are defined and then, the relationship between types of standards with innovation and the impact of regulation with various types of standards are examined. In the case study of "the standard of using low sulfur fuel has become mandatory from the beginning of 2020 in the shipping industry"; the structure of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the steps of converting a proposal into a standard in this organization are described. Finally, by applying the qualitative method and interviewing experts, the various solutions offered by countries and large companies in various industries to comply with this standard were analyzed. Solutions such as the use of marine diesel and low-sulfur fuels, the use of low-sulfur fuel mixtures, the installation of Scrubber of gas emission units in ships, the use of natural gas or the use of other marine fuels such as methanol and Biomass fuel was placed in the hands of research and development units in various refining, chemical, nano and polymer industries. These solutions require a variety of innovations in product and process technologies at different levels. This case study shows that a global standardization is effective in a variety of innovation methods and can shape the future development of countries and companies. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Impact of Cooperation and Competition of Shanghai’s Members on its Goals and Performance: 2001- 2013
      رضا  سیمبر مهدی  هدایتی شهیدانی
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 1 , Winter 2014
      The power vacuum within the Central Asia in the aftermath of the Cold War led the regional actors to create an integrative structure. Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) signifies the sensitivity and determination of its founding members towards More
      The power vacuum within the Central Asia in the aftermath of the Cold War led the regional actors to create an integrative structure. Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) signifies the sensitivity and determination of its founding members towards international, regional and local issues. The inherent rivalry and conflict in facing security crisis within the cooperative framework of SCO was the natural result of the presence of two nuclear and economic power, Russia and China, alongside micro-actors. This paper explains the nature of the communication system governing the relations among SCO members through the regional security arrangements approach. The hypothesis that “gathering of various approaches within the SCO would lead to increased cooperative relations, but also competetive and interest-maximiser” will be tested against various historical, geopolitical and economic variables. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - A Constructivist Study of International Organizations and Research Possibilities
      Homeira Moshirzadeh
      Iss. 5 , Vol. 2 , Spring 2014
      A Constructivist Study of International Organizations Homeira Moshirzadeh Associate Professor of International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Science; Tehran University Theoretical attitudes to international organizations provide a basis for presenting s More
      A Constructivist Study of International Organizations Homeira Moshirzadeh Associate Professor of International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Science; Tehran University Theoretical attitudes to international organizations provide a basis for presenting suitable questions and meaningful and systematic research. Constructivist approach as an analytical and conceptual framework, is a suitable basis for studying international organizations. This article while focusing on the theoretical foundations of constructivism and its research plan indicates that how this approach can guide research on international organizations. Constructivism can pave the way for further research on international organizations, given the issues such as interrelationship between agent and structure, inter subjectivity, relationship between rules and leadership, rule-setting, reproducing and changing rules, identity-building and organizational culture. This article shows that how some of these research possibilities have been exploited in research projects and what subjects could be explored in studying international organizations. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Victims of Peace: UN Responsibility and Remedial Mechanisms
      سیدقاسم  سیدقاسم زمانی
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 1 , Spring 2013
      Occasional violations of international law occur as the United Nations and its peacekeeping forces carry out their important responsibility and mission for protecting global peace and security. Remedial mechanisms become more complicated when the actions of peacekeeping More
      Occasional violations of international law occur as the United Nations and its peacekeeping forces carry out their important responsibility and mission for protecting global peace and security. Remedial mechanisms become more complicated when the actions of peacekeeping forces are attributed to the UN as a result of certain principles of international responsibility. On the one hand, the UN’s responsibility toward victims of such violations requires the world body to be answerable while, on the other hand, its immunity to trial in national and transnational courts, has barred victims from taking legal action. Although the UN has taken steps to solve this problem in order to restore the credit it has lost as a result of the actions of its forces as well as its immunity, the proposed mechanisms have posed new challenges, thus, making the UN target of new criticism. Such criticism seems even more justified as a result of the promotion of human rights in international community and alterations in the aforesaid immunity. The present paper discusses the necessity of introducing new mechanisms or reforms by the UN which would make the existing mechanisms more efficient and fairer Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Strategies and Components of EU Common Trade Policy
      Ali Sabbaghian Ebrahim Bagheri
      Iss. 5 , Vol. 2 , Spring 2014
      The European Union accounts for 19.7 percent of global trade in 2014. The EU with €1794 billion imports and €1687 billion of exports as well as absorbing some €523 billion foreign direct investments, the EU has gained the first position in these matters. The EU perfor More
      The European Union accounts for 19.7 percent of global trade in 2014. The EU with €1794 billion imports and €1687 billion of exports as well as absorbing some €523 billion foreign direct investments, the EU has gained the first position in these matters. The EU performs this large volume of trade in the framework of a special regulatory policy called the Common Trade Policy of the European Union. Now that the EU has been transformed into the world's largest trading power, we might ask what is the strategy of EU trade policy? What set of tools are being used to move it forward and what are its decision-making structures and mechanisms? And what are the main objectives of this policy? Given the importance of knowing the dimensions of the Europe Union's trade policy for the Islamic Republic of Iran, which is one of the EU’s trade partners, this article seeks to identify and analyze the implementation of the EU common trade policy mechanism and its various aspects. by discussing the answers to the above questions This article is a descriptive analysis and makes use of inferential research methodology to reach its objectives. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Contending Theories and the Analysis of International Organizations and Institutions, Peace, Security and Justice
      Seyed Abdolali ghavam Samira Mohseni
      Iss. 5 , Vol. 2 , Spring 2014
      The analysis of international organizations and institutions, peace, security and justice based on contending theories, in different ontological, epistemological and methodological frameworks, can help us to achieve a better understanding of the concept of international More
      The analysis of international organizations and institutions, peace, security and justice based on contending theories, in different ontological, epistemological and methodological frameworks, can help us to achieve a better understanding of the concept of international relations and demonstrates a more realistic picture of international institutions, processes and events. Obviously, the precise analysis of phenomena and events largely depends on the above strengths and weaknesses of mainstream and critical theories in explaining the above mentioned concepts Manuscript profile
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    Number of Volumes 5
    Number of Issues 15
    Printed Articles 106
    Number of Authors 190
    Article Views 24407
    Article Downloads 2085
    Number of Submitted Articles 159
    Number of Rejected Articles 14
    Number of Accepted Articles 32
    Acceptance 20 %
    Admission Time(Day) 227
    Reviewer Count 0
    Last Update 9/26/2022