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  • List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Function of Bilateral&Multilateral Diplomacy in combating the spreadand management of Corona Virus: Case study of Iran’s Ministry of ForeignAffairs
        Mahdi Farazi
        In the present article, the role and performance of theMinistry of Foreign Affairs of Iran incombating the prevalence and managementof coronavirus has been investigated. After examining the relationship between foreign policyand health security as one of the components More
        In the present article, the role and performance of theMinistry of Foreign Affairs of Iran incombating the prevalence and managementof coronavirus has been investigated. After examining the relationship between foreign policyand health security as one of the components of human security, the authorexamines the performance of the Iran’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs in twoperiods: the outbreak of coronavirus in China and the outbreak of corona virusin Iran by using inductive Methods&Accessible and non-confidential data. Studiesshow that Iran’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs has pursued fifteen measures fromthe time of the outbreak of the corona virus in China to its outbreak in Iranand eventually the pandemic, with a comprehensive human security approach thatplays a key role in the country's relative success in combating the prevalenceand management of coronavirus. In addition to analyzing of Iran’s Ministry ofForeign Affairs performance, the paper summarizes the country's weaknesses indealing with the outbreak of the coronavirus based on the government'smacro-approach and offers suggestions for future research. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The place of UN Security Council sanctions resolutions in the US sanctions strategy (2018-2020)
        Mahdi Pakzat Saeed Daghineh
        Iran’s Eleventh government efforts toward termination of UN security council resolutios were made on this perception that the resolutions shape the basis of all sanctions and the regime of sanctions (international and unilateral sanctions) would collapse by terminating More
        Iran’s Eleventh government efforts toward termination of UN security council resolutios were made on this perception that the resolutions shape the basis of all sanctions and the regime of sanctions (international and unilateral sanctions) would collapse by terminating UN security council resolutions. However, following US withdrawal from JCPOA and re-imposing unilateral sanctions in 2018, it became evident that the government’s perception wasn’t accurate. Thus, an important question rises up that what was the main goal in US efforts for making consensus against Iran in UN security council? In this article it is presumed that US efforts mainly made in order to fortify its regime of unilateral sanctions through UN security council resolutions. Therefore, this article in context of Wendt’s Constructivism and through document analysis aims to review sanction resolutions against Iran, deriving how these resolutions help US sanctions strategy on Iran. Accurate perception on UN security council resolutions’s role in US sanctions strategy could significantly help accuratley planning for better confronting economic and sanction pressure. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - COVID-19 and United Nations Peacekeeping Forces: New Challenges piled on Old Constraints
        Nasrin Mosaffa
        UN Peacekeeping forces are operational arms of security council with military, civil, administration and police mandate, active for more than 70 years in different parts of the world, to maintain international peace and security. By taking into account their historical More
        UN Peacekeeping forces are operational arms of security council with military, civil, administration and police mandate, active for more than 70 years in different parts of the world, to maintain international peace and security. By taking into account their historical experiences and lessons learnt from various challenges, this article considers the impact of COVID-19 global pandemic on UN Peacekeeping operations. By addressing the ways in which these forces dealt with pandemic related challenges and restrictions, it contextualizes it within their broader historical and institutional environment of adaptation. In short term, challenges emanating from COVID-19 intensifies the current challenges facing them. In longer term, it could trigger further institutional reassessment. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The position of Shanghai cooperation organization in Chinese regional and transregional balancing strategies (2010-2020)
        Mostafa Pakdel Majd Asghar Pirhadi
        As an emerging power in the post-Soviet era, the People's Republic of China has experienced an unprecedented upward trend in international balance of power over the past decade, pursuing a strategic approach in the form of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to expand More
        As an emerging power in the post-Soviet era, the People's Republic of China has experienced an unprecedented upward trend in international balance of power over the past decade, pursuing a strategic approach in the form of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to expand bilateral and multilateral relations with others. In this line, Regional and trans-regional organizations provided PRC with the Suitable foundation for achieving its security, military and economic goals and paved the way for the subsequent rearrangement of the international hierarchy of power. Given the circumstances, based on the theoretical assumptions of the balance of power theory, with a descriptive-analytical approach, the authors of the present essay have sought to answer this strategic question that "what are the main security goals that Beijing pursues in the form of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization?" The hypothesis of this essay is that through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, increasing cooperation with the Russian Federation and implementation of soft aspects of balancing strategy, China is both seeking to limit the presence of the United States in Central Asia, along with dominating this strategic region. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - United States" Use of Drones in the War on Terror from the Perspective of Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello
        Aghil Mohammadi
        The widespread use of drones by the United States to fight al-Qaeda and Taliban terrorist groups in countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan and Yemen after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks quickly challenged the legitimacy of targeted killings by drones in the l More
        The widespread use of drones by the United States to fight al-Qaeda and Taliban terrorist groups in countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan and Yemen after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks quickly challenged the legitimacy of targeted killings by drones in the light of international law. The military and the "CIA" believe that the use of drones is in line with the war on terrorism and in the framework of international humanitarian law. So, this article based on a descriptive-analytical approach answers the question, to "what extent is the United States' targeted killings by drones in line with the Jus ad Bellum Jus in Bello?" This article examines important issues such as the identity and status of those targeted and the legality of their killings in terms Jus ad Bellum Jus in Bello and concludes that using drones in the form of Right of self-defense is unacceptable and US actions has violated certain principles of international humanitarian law such as the principle of distinction, proportionality, military necessity, precautions in attack and humanity. Targeted killing in cases where there are no serious and imminent threats, is also in violation of international human rights law. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Studying Peace in the Documents and Procedures of FIFA
        Hamidreza Akbarpoor
        The Fédération Internationale de Football Association is a non-governmental international organization that plays an active role in the international society, particularly in the realization of its goals including peacebuilding. This study aimed to examine the role of " More
        The Fédération Internationale de Football Association is a non-governmental international organization that plays an active role in the international society, particularly in the realization of its goals including peacebuilding. This study aimed to examine the role of "FIFA" in building and establishing peace and the way a sports organization could influence world peacebuilding. A further question was the basis of FIFA’s participation in world peace. The answer to this question lies in 1980s when FIFA reconsidered its macro-level goals and was converted into a multi-aspect organization. Accordingly, the participation of FIFA began in 1980s in collaboration with other international organizations active in peacebuilding such as the United Nations and its sub-organizations such as United Nations Office on Sport for Development and Peace and UNICEF as well as non-governmental organizations such as Football for Peace. Several articles in FIFA’s Statue specify its active presence in different fields including human rights and elimination of racial and gender discriminations. This, in its turn, provides a space for peacebuilding in difficult conditions. The procedures of FIFA also indicate its high potential and influential role in peacebuilding and establishing peace in crisis-ridden areas in the Balkans, Palestine, Afghanistan, Africa, and other places in the world through joint programs such as “Unity for Peace, United for Peace”, “Football Friends”, “Football for Hope” and “Football for Peace”. Today, FIFA’s outlook is focused more than ever on peace and activities for peacebuilding. This is more tangible considering the developments in relations with other organizations active in peacebuilding and the significance of FIFA’s social responsibility. Manuscript profile