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No 10
Vol. 10 No. 4
2020
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Paris Climate Conference was held in a different manner related to the previous ones. The difference was in determining countries pledges. In this conference states themselves determined their share of mitigation of greenhouse gases. In previous conferences pledges were determined through a top down procedure which was not adequate and also parties were not able to fulfill them. But in Paris conference a bottom up procedure was used that helped countries to take pledges, based on their condition and abilities, they are able to fulfill them. The purpose of this research is to answer this question that how Paris climate conference affects international cooperation? This research suggests that the cooperation in Paris can be a model for cooperation in other international fields.
Hadi Ajili - Askari
Keywords : Paris Conference ، Environment ، Climate Change ، cop 21
The article seeks to evaluate the progress in the EU common foreign and security policy after the Lisbon treaty in comparison with Maastricht Treaty. Two crises in Eastern Europe have been studied by reviewing the EU’s official documents and ratifications. Ukraine crisis occurred five years after the Lisbon treaty, likewise the Kosovo crisis happened five years after the Maastricht treaty. By comparing the EU reaction to these two crises, the achievements can be evaluated. The focus is mainly on restrictive measures like economic and diplomatic sanctions. The study shows that considering all differences, the Ukrainian crisis was a success story and the EU drew a more cohesive and more efficient response. This conclusion was reached by the number of reactions and their efficacy. However, there are some qualifications, especially when positive peace is explored, the outcome did not satisfy the expectations.
Yousef Molaei - Issa Adeli
Keywords : Common Foreign and Security Policy ، Common Security and Defense Policy ، Ukraine Crisis ، Lisbon Treaty
fundamental social values, but also is considered as a reference point for codes, ethics and standards of conduct expected in various international trade and businesses. The EU's behaviors as one of the main political-economic actors of capitalism are fundamental to respect for human rights. Members of the Union have a long history of using political, military or economic and cultural tools against countries to persuade them to respect for human rights. The main issue of the present study is to examine the evolution of the pressure tools of EU’s human rights and its reflection on the mechanism of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). The key question is what evolution has happened to the pressure tools of EU’s human rights? The research hypothesis is that as the EU's human rights pressures take on an economic-political nature, along with the transformations in the world capitalist system. This bloc will try to persuade countries to adhere to global human rights by force and consent. In this vein, the EU uses the mechanism of the GSP as a soft and intelligent consent tool to put pressure on other countries in order to adopt the guidelines of the global human rights system.
Keywords : EU, ، Human Rights ، Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) ، pressure tools ، ConsentConsent
Achieving economic integration, security and sustainable development in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf has suggested as a considerable topic for many international relations' researchers. Reviewing the research literature, it can conclude that the researchers did not provide the same solutions on how to achieve regional convergence in the Persian Gulf. Instead, a variety of analysis, hypotheses and suggestions made in this regard. The study aims on the feasibility of economic integration in the Persian Gulf region (including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Kuwait and Bahrain) and the requirements for achieving it. Economic convergence considered as a process that aims to achieve peace, security and sustainable development in the region. Accordingly, the research question would be “How the Gulf States could achieve economic integration in order to achieve peace, security and sustainable development”. In order to achieve peace, security and sustainable development, the research hypothesis the Persian Gulf States should rely on a combination of various economic, political, security, and religious-cultural capacities. Then, overcoming internal, regional and visionary divergent factors must take into account the behavioral requirements of achieving economic and political-security cooperation (in the short and medium term) and economic convergence (in the long-term) in major national decisions as well as their foreign policy approaches. The research methodology, as needed, was a combination of qualitative method based on library documents and quantitative and statistical methods. The findings provide a comprehensive network model for achieving peace, security and sustainable development through economic integration in the Persian Gulf. While rejecting strategic hierarchy model in prioritizing the indicators, the simultaneous and interconnected use of different economic, political, security and religious-cultural components in achieving economic and political-security cooperation in the short and medium-term and economic convergence is proposed for long-term.
Hemmat Imani
Keywords : Challenges, Capacities ، Requirements ، Economic Convergence ، Strategic Series Model ، Network Model ، Development
In the sphere of international law, governments have an obligation to prevent and combat terrorism related crimes and not to support or sponsor these crimes. A government that directly or indirectly commits, sponsors or indulges in terrorism related crimes will be held liable by internal law. Any support for terrorism, whether directly or indirect, according to international conventions is prohibited. Apportioning/holding the government responsible internationally according to civil and criminal acts for which the terrorism act was committed can be an appropriate response to this state sponsored terrorism. This article analysis the international responsibility of governments for acts of terrorism and its financing. The present article has been written by descriptive-analytical method and based on written documents and sources and its information has been sourced through journals, books and articles available in the library through research. The present study concludes that with the spread of government sponsored terrorism and other international crimes enormous death rates and destruction of property, environment and livelihoods is witnessed. These losses left by them, including targeting the vital interests of governments harms the threat of international peace and security. Most of the countries in the world understand the need to implement and apply the theory of international criminal justice. The governments have come to believe that the positive results of such an approach and realised that the benefits far outweigh the possible negative consequences to combat international crime. And this is possible only by accepting and implementing strategies to protect and insulate from such criminal acts. The responsibility of the governments and individuals in accepting criminal liability should be objective. And hold groups and individuals who commit such crimes responsible.
Baqer Shamloo - ahmad mohammadi
Keywords : Terrorist Financing ، Terrorism ، Criminal Liability ، Civil Liability ، Global Jurisdiction (competence)

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