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No 15
Vol. 15 No.
2021
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Geoeconomic Order Making as one of the main foundations of strategic Order Making in West Asia as well as playing the role of economic stabilization in the periphery areas have become some of the main directions of regional foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Neighborhood policy based on economic diplomacy in the geo-economic cluster of Central Asia and the Caucasus has provided a favorable business environment in the form of membership in the Eurasian Economic Union. Selling of consumer goods and services to the region in order to boost exports and enhance the value of national currency are among the main goals of joining the union. The question of the present study is that “what are the opportunities and challenges of advancing Iran's membership in the Eurasian Economic Union regarding geoeconomic participation in Central Asia and the Caucasus? In response to the above question, it is hypothesized that the expanding export markets and strengthen the convergence of geoenergy with union members are the most important opportunities and incompatibility of the economies of the member states along with their competition in energy exports are among the challenges facing the Islamic Republic of Iran in the markets of Eurasian Economic union. The research method in this article is descriptive-explanatory.
Amir Abbasi Khoshkar
Keywords : Eurasian Economic Union, Neighborhood Policy, Economic Diplomacy, Economic Multilateralism, Geoeconomic Making Order, Export Development, Central Asia and Caucasus
Due to the proliferation of technologies underlying weapons of mass destruction and the non-membership of Iran's regional rival, Israel, in the organization, and despite the indicators for the success of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), there are always concerns about the consequences of Iran’s membership in the OPCW, meaning that by joining the organization, Iran will not only lose its weapons-based deterrence, but also is exposed to intelligence threats by providing the organization with confidential onformation. The main question of the present study is what legal-political, defense and security opportunities Iran will enjoy and what threats it will face by joining the CWC and the OPCW. The purpose of this research is to accurately explain the opportunities and threats in order to benefit more from them to secure Iran's interests. The findings show that the implicit threats of membership in the CWC and the OPCW are also present in the case of non-membership. However, the direct and implicit opportunities for Iran's membership in the convention and the organization are unavoidable.
Afifeh Abedi
Keywords : Iran, Opportunity, Threat, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
The dynamic nature of the international order and distribution of power has transformed the international environment into an arena of rapid political, military, and security developments. The establishment of NATO was also the result of one of these developments, including rapid expansion of Soviet's military and geopolitical power. The organization has faced many challenges throughout its life, one of the most important of which was the collapse of the Soviet Union and the disappearance of its founding philosophy. But in the post-Cold War era of international relations, NATO not only sustained its life by relying on its strategic concepts, using Russia's in its domestic power transition, as well as highlighting emerging threats such as terrorism, but also increased its members from 16 countries -before the collapse of the Soviet Union- to 30 countries in 2020. Despite NATO's high level of adaptation to international developments, the global distribution of power is changing rapidly, posing fundamental challenges to the organization. The present study seeks to address three key issues, including the challenges and threats facing NATO in assessing the international political and security environment, NATO's strategy for dealing with these threats, and finally its consequences. Using a descriptive-analytical method, while extracting the system of threats facing NATO, this article deals with some of the most important pillars of NATO's strategy for implementation until 2030. Finally, the global implications of NATO's new strategy are analyzed as well.
- Asgar Safari
Keywords : NATO, Strategy, Strategic Concept, Threat, Geopolitics
Waters of the South and Southeast Asia have long been some of the most important hotspots for various sea-based organized crimes. As a result of the continuously rising threat of terrorism and its spread all around the world, along with the access of terrorist groups to more efficient and modern military equipments, the danger of terrorism has become more imminent and widespread, taking many forms and finding its way to the seas. Maritime terrorism, especially within regions where other maritime crimes are prevalent, is considered, because of the probable links between the offenders, as one of the most serious threats against peace and security at seas. Considering the organized nature of these crimes, effective suppression of them is only possible through collective and cooprative initiatives. Thus, regional organizations have an undeniably important role in combating maritime terrorism. This article, using the descriptive-analytical method, aims to assess the performance and function of a selected number of regional organizations active within South and Southeast Asia and to examine their achievements and shortcomings, as well as their challenges, in combating maritime terrorism. This article concludes that the activities of these organizations have been essential but insufficient, and the most important challenge ahead is lack of collective strategies at the regional level.
Farhad Talaie - Maral Javidbakht
Keywords : International organizations Maritime Terrorism, Regional security, South and Southeast Asia, ASEAN, SAARC, BIMSTEC
The impact of rules and standards to stimulate innovation in organizations has been the subject of various articles and research since the early 1990s. Identifying the types of standards and their impact mechanism on innovation through public policies has been addressed in this study. In this line, by using library studies, at first, innovation and innovation policy are defined and then, the relationship between types of standards with innovation and the impact of regulation with various types of standards are examined. In the case study of "the standard of using low sulfur fuel has become mandatory from the beginning of 2020 in the shipping industry"; the structure of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the steps of converting a proposal into a standard in this organization are described. Finally, by applying the qualitative method and interviewing experts, the various solutions offered by countries and large companies in various industries to comply with this standard were analyzed. Solutions such as the use of marine diesel and low-sulfur fuels, the use of low-sulfur fuel mixtures, the installation of Scrubber of gas emission units in ships, the use of natural gas or the use of other marine fuels such as methanol and Biomass fuel was placed in the hands of research and development units in various refining, chemical, nano and polymer industries. These solutions require a variety of innovations in product and process technologies at different levels. This case study shows that a global standardization is effective in a variety of innovation methods and can shape the future development of countries and companies.
- Mohammad Naghizadeh - Vali Bazarchi
Keywords : Policy making, standardization, International Maritime Organization

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