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No 8
Vol. 8 No. 2
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This study provides a comprehensive insight and information about the concept of the right of veto and its various kinds, which practically have been formed in the procedure of the UN Security Council, and by focusing on concept of “the hidden veto”, it examines its fundamental role in the decision-making process of the Security Council. In the Post-Cold War era, the use of the hidden veto, mainly in the informal consultations, by the permanent members of the Security Council has increased dramatically. The hidden veto has shown its impact on the Security Council’s decision-making process in two ways: First, by “controlling the agenda” and preventing the Security Council from putting particular issues on its agenda or in other words “exercising the five permanent members of the Security Council’s censorship”; and second, by “blocking action” in cases in which an unwanted issue is put on the agenda of the Security Council bringing forward some issues such as “weakening the definition of the crisis under international law”, “eliminating content, softening the language and weakening the wording of resolutions”, “self-censorship and the double hidden veto”, and “the reverse veto”
Keywords : Right of Veto ، Hidden Veto ، Informal Consultations ، Controlling the Agenda ، Blocking Action ، Security Council
The UN has initiated a demand-oriented approach regarding narcotics and simultaneously has adopted supply-oriented policy, since 1989. This initiative is considered to be the result of some adverse consequences of coercive approaches toward the supply of narcotics. In this regard, this article aims to study the reasons of failure of the supply-oriented approach, and then to describe the elements of the demand-oriented approach of UN regarding narcotics, by using a bibliographical analysis as well as studying the UN orientations and approaches of UN regarding narcotics. The results of the supply-oriented approach to counter narcotics is considered unfavorable, and in some cases wholly adversarial to the objectives. By considering the increasing importance of human rights literature in the world, in general, and in the UN in particular, the scope of countering narcotics is now considered to be overshadowed by human rights, which consequently affected the UN approach to counter narcotics.
Esmaeil Baghaei Hamaneh - Ali Ghasemifard
Keywords : countering narcotics ، demand-oriented approach ، UN ، human rights ، execution
The study of the status of OIC member states in the main organs of the United Nations and their contribution in the budget of the UN is the main subject addressed by this article. The member states of OIC make up more than a quarter of UN members and they could potentially have an appropriate role and influence in this organization. The evaluation of the presence of Islamic countries during more than 70 years of United Nations activities show that their presence and role in some main organs such as the International Court of Justice, the UN Secretary General and the Security Council are not commensurate with the population and the size of these countries. On the other hand, however, 57 Islamic countries totally account for only about 6 percent of the budget of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation Organization 173 United Nations member states in 2016 provided 15 percent of the budget of this organization, this percentage is significant. The major weakness of Islamic countries is that they do not participate as a single whole in competition for positions or in other activities of the organization but they pursue their own particular interests within the OIC individual or group outside of the OIC to follow.
Keywords : Islamic countries ، Organization of Islamic Cooperation ، main organs of the UN ، Security Council ، International court of Justice ، budge of the UN
The entrance of the European Union as a supranational actor into the field of political-security issues is a rare occurrence that has challenged realism as the most important state-centered theory in the international arena. Therefore, since the theory of realism as the main theory in the field of security issues does not recognize any role for non-state actors in this field, the question is brought forward that how do this theory and its various branches analyze and evaluate the actions and role of the European Union regarding political-security issues? In response, it can be said that this theory, at first, did not pay enough attention to the EU's security developments, due to the fact that it did not consider the EU a non-state actor, but as the EU began to formulate a common foreign and security policy and European security and defense policy and to establish European rapid reaction forces, it was forced to present some views in this regard. Although all branches of realism, due to their belief in the monopoly of state actors in the international arena, and their emphasis on elements such as national interests and national sovereignty, do not provide a clear-cut view on the political and security integration of the European Union, defensive neo-realists have a clearer and more optimistic view on the evolution of political and security integration at the EU level, due to the importance attached by them to the role of institutions in establishing security cooperation between states.
Seyed Davood Aghaee - Yasser Nooralivand - Ebrahim Bagheri
Keywords : realism ، neo-realism ، European Union ، security integration ، common foreign and security policy
Regional arrangements which are covering a wide range of international institutions, despite some criticisms, were foreseen both in the League of Nations and the United Nations system in order that their capacity to be used to maintain international peace and security. Accordingly, Chapter 8 of the United Nations Charter, while emphasizing the involvement of regional arrangements for the maintenance of regional peace and security, has laid down conditions and limits for their involvement. This article while paying attention to the role of regional arrangements in international peace and security, addresses the most important conditions and limits of these arrangements stipulated in the 8th chapter of the Charter. These conditions include: 1. Observance of the principles and objectives of the Charter: this is a condition for the coordination of the United Nations and regional arrangements for maintaining peace and security. 2. Enjoying the mechanism of the resolution of disputes: this condition suggests correspondence between the 6th and 7th chapters of the Charter of the United Nations, on the one hand, and the 8th chapter of the Charter. 3. Obtaining permission from the Security Council to take coercive measures: this condition is based on the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security. 4. Informing the Security Council: this condition is a complement to the previous condition
- Mehdi Haddadi
Keywords : regional arrangements ، peace and security ، United Nations Charter ، Security Council ، resolution of disputes

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