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No 14
Vol. 14 No. 5
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Capacities of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Considering the membership of two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (Russia and China) in this organization, having more than a third of the world's population, considerable size, large capacities and abundant capabilities, promises a potentially strong coalition. Due to the permanent membership of the Islamic Republic of Iran in this organization, it seems that examining the consequences of Iran's membership in this organization in the form of explaining the opportunities and challenges of membership, can Facilitate policy making in foreign policy of Iran about this issue. This study suggests that Iran's permanent membership in this organization can increase Iran's geopolitical weight in the region and bring political, economic and security benefits to Iran. Based on this, first, we study the theoretical explanation of formation and continuation of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and then while analyzing the reasons for non-membership of the Islamic Republic of Iran to now; the consequences of permanent membership in the current situation in this organization are examined.
Hamid Hakim - Mahboubeh Iran nia
Keywords : Shanghai Cooperation Organization ، Islamic Republic of Iran ، Permanent Membership ، Geopolitical Weight
Today, terrorism is one of the most important issues for nations and governments in the world. Although certain parts of the world are more affected by this phenomenon than the others, its prevalence has almost become a security concern in most contemporary societies. We are witnessing efforts by the United Nations to counter the growth and activities of terrorist groups, especially as the crisis of terrorism became more of a threat to global security with the rise of ISIS and its transnational actions. This article through analytical and descriptive methods and by using library and website resources seeks to answer the question of what resolutions the United Nations has adopted against the terrorist group ISIL. The novelty of this study is that, unlike previous studies that have dealt with the Iraq-Syria crisis and the role of the United Nations during it, it intends to address only the issue of UN resolutions on ISIL in a coherent manner. The research findings show that since 2014 up until 2021, resolutions 2169, 2170, 2178, 2199, 2347, 2249 and 2462 are the most important UN resolutions adopted against ISIL. Resolution 2169 on the identification of ISIL as a terrorist group, Resolution 2170 on the dissolution of ISIL, Resolution 2178 on the recruitment of foreign fighters to ISIL, Resolution 2199 on the prohibition of buying and trading in oil and gas, antiques and historical objects with terrorists, Resolution 2347 on the Security Council Regarding the protection of the common heritage of humanity and cultural heritage, Resolution 2249 to destroy ISIL sanctuaries in Iraq and Syria, and finally Resolution 2462 on the fight against terrorism and the financing of terrorism; all were adopted to contain the activities of this terrorist organization
ehsan jafari far - Reza nasirihamed
Keywords : UN ، ISIL ، Resolution ، Terrorism ، Security Council
In the current age Net is an alternative of place in criminology, and violation of international law. Cyber space is new phenomena both in the scope of technology and in non-useful functions. Cyber-attacks and its sorts can cause physical damage and loss of life, because of this; it can be under the responsibility obligations of states. International responsibility of states (for example draft article of responsibility of state in internationally wrongful act) is one of the most important elements in the law of cyber-attacks. The first issue in the cyber-attack is the term of “force” and “attack”. Cyber-attack can be under the term of attack in international law. According to this concept, the main question is “do and to what extend cyber-attacks are attributable to conduct of state? To answer this question first we have to know the concepts of attack. Then which commentaries of article 2 (para 4) of United Nations Charter are useful to cyber-attack, finally the dilemma of recognition and attribution of root of attack is so important to applying of the law of responsibility of state.
Keywords : Cyber-space ، Cyber-attack ، responsibility of state ، recognition ، attribution
World Trade Organization reform has been discussed since its establishment. Issues such as the reform of special and differential treatment and also the reform of the consensus decision-making system have been among the most important cases of attention. The constant conflict between developed and developing countries, which led to the collapse of the Doha Round negotiations and the failure of the reforms debate in WTO, can be attributed to the different perspectives of these two country groups on the main purpose of WTO. Developed countries believe that the final aim of WTO is to facilitate free trade between countries, they also demand that WTO should expand free trade to e-commerce and intellectual property. On the other hand, developing countries believe the final goal of the WTO is to accelerate the development of all countries. They also expect WTO to announce the approval of an overall result of the Doha Development Round negotiations as a precondition for new negotiations of WTO reform. In addition, after the U.S crisis in WTO Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), the reform of DSB has become one of the most challenging pillars of the WTO reform process. Making consensus in the decisions has faced a deadlock in the decision-making mechanism of WTO. For instance, some of the recent issues in international trade, such as e-commerce have created different conditions in WTO in comparison to time WTO was established. Furthermore, in recent years some events like the Coronavirus pandemic and changing of the president of the United States, have made WTO reform inevitable.
Mahmoodreza Jalili - Mehdi Fakheri
Keywords : WTO Reform ، World trade negotiation ، Collapse of Doha round ، WTO appellate body
With the end of the Cold War and the bipolar system of international relations and consequently the establishment of international peace, the international system has undergone profound changes and has experienced new features and variables. According to this paper, the concept of international peace has been in a very critical and deplorable state since the 1990s, and the mechanisms for achieving peace, including the United Nations' preventive diplomacy as the sole institution for the realization of international peace was both ineffective and inefficient in preventing bloody conflicts and large-scale genocides in comparison with the Cold War era. This article seeks to answer the question that how is the performance of UN preventive diplomacy assessed in the post-Cold War era? In response to this question, it is hypothesized that the performance of UN preventive diplomacy in the post-Cold War era has not been successful due to its weakness and inefficiency in resolving armed conflicts in order to achieve international peace.
Amir Hooshang Mirkooshesh - ramtin rezaii
Keywords : Preventive Diplomacy ، International Peace ، United Nations

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