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No 7
Vol. 7 No. 2
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International Institutions, though one of key global actors and topics of International Studies, are rarely studied by focusing on the internal processes of change. A justification for lack of research could be the challenges in quantifying internal changes and processes. Hence, the proliferation of qualitative takes relying on personal analysis. Given the importance of cooperation groups in global governance, this article asks what is the degree of change in the process of expansion of G5 into G20? Utilising quantitative and mathematical methods, the study offers an equation based on data provided by the World Back. The equation proves a model to analyse track-records, which seemingly suggests highest performance by G7 and lowest for G8
Ali Akbar Kiani
Keywords : International Institutions, G5, G20, Performance Evaluation, Quantification
By investigating the security-political divide within the European Union despite the economic integration, the article suggests structural, internal and external challenges are preventing the EU to echo one voice in international level. The most important challenge in achieving the Common Foreign and Security Policy is Member States’ insistence on national structures such as national sovereignty and nation interests. In maintaining national structures on supra-national level, European Union is suspended between two different structure: confederate and federal. The indeterminate and fluid structure manifests itself in process of decision-making across different policy-making arenas. Achieving EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy is prevented by contradiction between the national approach (encompassing national sovereignty and national sovereignty) and the supra-national approach (limiting national sovereignty and compromising national interest for sake of common interest).This article tries to analyze the issue that why EU notwithstanding in the field political and security convergence in the international arena?
Yasser Nooralivand - Mohammad Reza Majidi
Keywords : The EU, Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), National Sovereignty, National Interests and Common Interests
The North-South divide in Europe is one of the most pressing challenges facing members of the European Union, influencing the process of integration within the Union. The North-South divide manifest the classic European divides such as East and West, old and young, Continent-oriented or Atlantic-oriented, and not developed-less developed. How did this divide emerge? What are the extent of it? Within the framework of governance theory, the article assesses the divide at three levels: first, structural deficiency amongst the south, political and economic corruption, gap in governance, unequal GDP and cultural-religious differences manifests themselves at national level. At regional level, the differences between France and Germany, the Euro crisis and ensuing austerity measures have affected the North-South divide. Internationally, globalisation and global crisis (es) deepened the divide.
Roxana Niknami
Keywords : : North-South Chaos, European Union, The Economic Crisis, Debt Crisis, Ethnicity, Political Corruption, Governance
This paper aims to investigate the change in Turkey's approach towards the Kurds in the process of its accession to the European Union accession process. Europeanisation of Turkey is one of the most important factors in normalisation of the Kurdish issue by removing it from the security agenda and re-defining Turkish citizenship. It provided new opportunity for groups who are seeking peaceful solutions to the Kurdish conflict, leading to internalisation of Human Rights values and multi-culturalism. To test this hypothesis, we rely on literatures on Europeanisation to investigate EU’s policy on Kurds in the Republic of Turkey and assess the influence of Turkey’s accession process on normalisation of the Kurdish issue given EU’s compulsory, emancipatory, and de-securitisation processes. Normalisation of the Kurdish issue coupled with reduced role of the EU in past few years also suggest possibility of harsh encounter against Kurdish separatists.
Hossein Mofidi Ahmadi - Ali Asghar Kazemi -
Keywords : Europeanisation, European Union, Kurdish Issue, Normalisation, Turkey
After World War II, particularly since 1960s, international cooperation gained prominence within the framework of regional organizations by elevating regional cooperation. Expansion of cooperation through regional organizations are deemed as an approach to exit from international crisis, and to multiply power in facing new issues of today’s world. Regionalisation leads to development of economic cooperation, political and security harmonisation. It can reinforce regional peace and security by providing peaceful solutions for existing regional conflicts or potential ones. The Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) replaced the Regional Development Cooperation Organisation with aims of improving conditions for sustainable developments of members, expansion of regional and international trade, facilitating gradual integration with global economy, increased integration amongst public sector of member states and expanding tourism. This article highlights ECO’s role in reducing regional challenges and further integration between member states
hojat mahkooee -
Keywords : Regional Organizations, Convergence, Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), Member Governments

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